Pes 18 Cd Key [HOT]
Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between ultrasonographic features of tibialis posterior (TP) tendon in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and associated pes planovalgus (PPV) foot deformity. Patients and methods This study included 20 (40 feet) RA patients with PPV and ultrasound-proven TP tenosynovitis. The following variables were recorded for patients: the number of tender and swollen foot joints count, foot posture index (FPI), Health Assessment Questionnaire, and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28). FPI is a clinical tool used to quantify the degree to which a foot is pronated, neutral, or supinated using the set criteria. Patients underwent high-resolution ultrasound of the TP tendon. Measurement of tendon diameter was recorded in the retromalleolar region. The presence of fluid around the TP tendon and levels of power Doppler signal (PDS) were assessed. Results High disease activity was detected in patients (mean DAS28 of 5.89). Eighteen (45%) feet had thickened transverse diameter and 15 (37.5%) feet had thickened longitudinal diameter. Twenty-three feet showed PDS. Nineteen feet had fluid around the tendon, detected only in the retromalleolar region. Regarding FPI, 14 feet were mild to moderate pronated feet and 26 feet were highly pronated feet. There were direct correlation between FPI and both DAS28 (p=0.05) and transverse diameter thickness (p=0.01). Highly pronated feet had higher DAS28 (p=0.03), increased transverse diameter thickness (p=0.04), more detection of fluid around the TP tendon (p=0.005) as well as higher incidence of PDS around the TP tendon (p=0.002). Conclusion Higher degree of pronation in RA feet with PPV is associated with ultrasonographic increased tendon thickness, PDS, and fluid around TP tendon. Early diagnosis and intervention for TP tenosynovitis may prevent progressive PPV foot deformity.
Pes 18 Cd Key
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory arthritis, affecting ∼1% of the world’s population . Approximately 90% of patients with RA will report foot-related symptoms at some time during the disease course . Tenosynovitis is one of the key features of the clinical pattern in these patients . The most common ankle tendons affected by tenosynovitis is the tibialis anterior followed by the tibialis posterior (TP) . Tibial posterior tendon stabilizes the hindfoot against valgus and eversion forces. It is a powerful subtalar joint supinator and acts as a support of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA). Dysfunction of the TP tendon following degeneration and rupture results in progressive destabilization of the hindfoot and the midfoot . However, lesser degrees of TP tendon dysfunction is considered as a factor contributing to heel valgus and flatfoot deformities in RA patients. This condition results in significant foot pain and walking disability . Flat feet are also associated with knee pain and cartilage damage . Furthermore, tenosynovitis and associated flat feet could result in the occurrence of tarsal tunnel syndrome .
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After a brief review of common neuroscience methods, we discuss existing research within these three broad themes. Clinical applications of neuroscience remain limited, particularly with children and adolescents. Thus, we focus primarily on what is possible in terms of these applications (for additional review, see Fournier & Price, 2014; Weingarten & Strauman, 2015). At the same time, it is important to acknowledge the current practical constraints of integrating neuroscience methods into clinical practice. Accordingly, we end with a discussion of obstacles, limitations, and future directions that might facilitate the application of neuroscience to clini- cal intervention for children and adolescents. As translational research in children is still limited, we discuss relevant research on children and adolescents where pos- sible and highlight examples from research with adults when pediatric research is not available. Many of the reviewed neuroimaging studies focus on neural networks involved in salience and reward processing. The primary brain regions in each of these networks are depicted in Figures 30.1 and 30.2, respectively. We focus on incorporating neuroscience methods into the evaluation of evidence-based treat- ments. We do not cover treatments that are not empirically supported.